Heart and Vascular Conditions

Experts at Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin are knowledgeable, experienced and dedicated to treating the whole spectrum of heart and vascular conditions.

Learn more about conditions within these specialty areas:

Or, learn more about a condition by locating it alphabetically.

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z


A

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) — an aneurysm involving the aorta; an AAA occurs in the abdominal aorta, the part of the aorta that passes through the abdomen. Aortic Disease Program specialists at Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin, including cardiac surgeons, vascular surgeons and vascular and interventional radiologists, have extensive experience diagnosing and treating all types of aortic aneurysm.

Advanced heart failure – heart failure is a condition marked by the heart’s inability to pump blood effectively throughout the body. Advanced heart failure patients whose conditions continue to worsen can benefit from the specialized treatment, such as that provided through Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Advanced Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation Program.

Aneurysm — an area of a localized widening (dilation) of a blood vessel. Learn more about abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), aortic aneurysm, peripheral aneurysm, thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA ) and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm and Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin's Aortic Disease Program.

Angina — chest pain due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle. Angina is caused by coronary artery disease (CAD). Treatment may include lifestyle changes, medication, special procedures and cardiac rehabilitation. The Heart and Vascular Center performs a specialized procedure called transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR), aimed at relieving angina when other treatments are not an option.

Aorta — the large vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Aortic aneurysm — an aneurysm that occurs in the aorta.

Aortic disease — diseases of the aorta, including aneurysms, dissections and injuries. Learn about Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin's Aortic Disease Program.

Aortic dissection — a tear in the wall of the aorta. Aortic Disease Program specialists at Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin, including cardiac surgeons, vascular surgeons and vascular and interventional radiologists, have extensive experience diagnosing and treating all types of aortic dissections.

Aortic valve insufficiency or aortic valve regurgitation – occurs when the aortic valve doesn’t close properly and blood flows back into the left ventricle, making the heart work harder; can lead to enlargement of the left ventricle.

Aortic valve stenosis – a narrowing of the aortic valve, making it harder for blood to flow through to the aorta; can make the muscle work harder and eventually thicken.

Arrhythmia — an abnormal heart rhythm (either too fast or too slow). Learn more about arrhythmias and Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin's Arrhythmia Program.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) - a genetic, progressive cardiomyopathy condition in which the heart’s right ventricle muscle is replaced by fat and fibrosis, causing irregular heart rhythms. Learn more about ARVD and other cardiomyopathy conditions.

Atherosclerosis — a buildup of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the inner lining of an artery.

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) — is the most common, abnormal rhythm of the heart in which electrical discharges are irregular and rapid; as a result, the heart beats irregularly and, usually, rapidly. Learn more about atrial fibrillation and Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin's Atrial Fibrillation program.

Atrial flutter — an organized form of arrhythmia marked by overly rapid contractions of the atrium of the heart, usually at a rate of 250-350 contractions per minute (flutter is well organized while fibrillation is not).

Atrial septal defect (ASD) — a congenital heart defect causing a hole in the septum, the wall between the atria, or the upper chambers of the heart. Learn more about treatments for ASD.

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B

Bradycardia — a slow heart rate, usually less than 60 beats per minute. Learn more about this and other arrhythmia conditions, as well as Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Arrhythmia Program.

Brugada syndrome – an inherited cardiomyopathy and potentially life-threatening heart rhythm disorder. Learn more about Brugada syndrome and other cardiomyopathy conditions.

Bundle branch block – a delay or obstruction in the transmission of the heart’s electrical impulses that impairs the heart’s ability to pump efficiently.

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C

Cardiac arrest — the sudden stopping of the heart's pumping, possibly due to a heart attack, respiratory arrest, electrical shock, extreme cold, blood loss, drug overdose or a severe allergic reaction.

Cardiomyopathy — any disease of the heart muscle that inhibits the heart’s ability to pump blood effectively, which may lead to an arrhythmia. Learn more about cardiomyopathies, including genetic cardiomyopathies such as Long Q-T syndrome, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and Brugada syndrome.

Cardiovascular disease — diseases that affect the heart and the blood vessels throughout the body (includes heart disease, coronary artery disease, coronary heart disease and peripheral vascular disease; also called heart and vascular disease).

Carotid artery disease — a blockage or narrowing of the carotid artery inside the neck caused by hard cholesterol substances (plaques) deposited within a carotid artery; plaque in the carotid arteries can cause a tiny clot to form which can obstruct the flow of blood to the brain.

Conduction disease — recurrent sudden attacks of unconsciousness caused by impaired conduction of the impulse that regulates the heartbeat. Learn more about heart rhythm disorders like conduction disease and Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin's Arrhythmia Program.

Congenital heart disease — a heart problem present from birth. Learn about Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program.

Congestive heart failure — a buildup of fluid in the lungs and elsewhere decreases the heart’s ability to pump blood effectively throughout the body. Mild forms of heart failure may be reversible. Learn more about expert resources for treating advanced heart failure through Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Advanced Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation Program.

Connective tissue disorder — conditions such as Marfan syndrome that affect the groups of fibers and cells that connect the body’s frame and hold it together, such as tendons, ligaments, cartilage, blood, bone, and the dermis of the skin. Inherited conditions such as Loeys-Dietz Syndrome (LDS) and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome are often associated with heart problems.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) — hard cholesterol substances (plaques) deposited within a coronary (heart) artery; plaque in the coronary arteries can cause a tiny clot to form which can obstruct the flow of blood to the heart muscle. Learn more about expert resources for treating coronary artery disease through Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Coronary Artery Disease Program.

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D

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) – a blood clot that develops in a vein deep in the body, most often develops in the lower legs or thighs.

Dyslipidemia/high cholesterol/hyperlipidemia/lipid abnormalities – abnormal levels of fatty substances in the bloodstream, including cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that increase the risk of heart and vascular disease. Learn more about treating lipid disorders to prevent heart attack, stroke and other serious conditions through Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Preventive Cardiology and Lipid Therapy program.

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E

Edema – a buildup of fluids in the tissues. Heart failure edema is called congestive heart failure (CHF), traditionally treated with diuretics (drugs that increase the excretion of water from the body). If diuretics stop working for patients, whether suffering from heart failure or other conditions that involve swelling in the legs and abdomen) they may benefit from Aquapheresis™, a filtration system that removes fluid in patients.

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H

Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) — a buildup of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the inner lining of an artery.

Heart attack (myocardial infarction) — a complete blockage of blood flow to an area of the heart, causing heart cells to die. Learn more about Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s exceptional Emergency Care for heart attack patients.

Heart disease — a general term that relates to many heart conditions; coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease.

Heart failure — a condition in which the heart loses its ability to efficiently pump blood throughout the body. Learn more about expert resources for treating advanced heart failure through Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Advanced Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation Program.

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) — a genetic disorder, also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu (OWR), characterized by a blood vessel abnormality that causes patients to bleed easily, even spontaneously. Learn more about expert resources for treating HHT through Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) Program.

High cholesterol/hyperlipidemia/dyslipidemia/lipid abnormalities – abnormal levels of fatty substances in the bloodstream, including cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that increase the risk of heart and vascular disease.

High blood pressure/hypertension – a rise in the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood that lasts over time. High blood pressure can increase your risk for coronary artery disease.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) —a rare, usually genetic form of cardiomyopathy that limits the amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat. Learn more about our highly specialized hypertropic cardiomyopathy (HCM) program.

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L

Lipid abnormalities/high cholesterol/hyperlipidemia/dyslipidemia – abnormal levels of fatty substances in the bloodstream, including cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that increase the risk of heart and vascular disease.

Long Q-T syndrome – an inherited cardiomyopathy disorder of the heart’s electrical rhythm that involves repeated fainting and a high risk of cardiac arrest. Learn more about Long Q-T syndrome and other cardiomyopathy conditions.

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M

Marfan Syndrome — a genetic condition that affects connective tissue in the body, including the heart and blood vessels. People with Marfan Syndrome are at higher risk for aortic aneurysms.

Mitral stenosis – a narrowing of the heart’s mitral valve, impacting blood to flow into the left ventricle and increasing pressure in the left atrium, which can lead to pulmonary edema, arrhythmia and blood clots.

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), mitral valve regurgitation – one or both of the heart valve’s leaflets are enlarged or don’t close properly, causing the heart to work harder because a small amount of blood flows back into the atrium.

Myocardial infarction (heart attack) — a complete blockage of blood flow to an area of the heart, causing heart cells to die. Learn more about Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s exceptional Emergency Care for heart attack patients.

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P

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) — a defect in the wall (septum) between the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart; the defect is an incomplete closure of the atrial septum that results in an opening in the atrial septal wall; a PFO is common in everyone before birth, but seals shut in 75 percent to 80 percent of people. Learn more about treatments for PFO.

Peripheral artery disease or peripheral vascular disease (PAD or PVD) — a disease that causes veins and arteries outside the heart become clogged with fatty deposits (plaque), causing them to narrow and reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the muscles. Learn more about PAD.

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R

Right ventricular (RV) dysplasia – see arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD)

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S

Spider veins — a group of veins that appear on the surface of the skin; the veins may look like short, fine lines, “starburst” clusters or a web-like maze. Learn more about the Comprehensive Vein Clinic at Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin.

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) — an arrhythmia involving both the ventricles and the atria that causes rapid heart rhythms. Learn more about SVT and Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Arrhythmia Program.

Syncope — a temporary loss of consciousness (fainting) usually related to temporary insufficient blood flow to the brain.

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T

Tachycardia — a rapid heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute. Learn more about tachycardia and Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Arrhythmia Program.

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) — an aneurysm in the part of the aorta above the diaphragm. A thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm extends down into the abdomen. Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin was the first institution in the region to perform TEVAR, a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure used to repair a TAA from inside the aorta.

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V

Valve disease (valvular disease) — disease affecting one or more of the four valves of the heart. Learn more about Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Valvular Heart Disease Program, which provides a dedicated and coordinated approach to diagnosing and treating all types of valve disease.

Varicose veins — enlarged, often twisted veins that develop when valves in the vein become weak and don’t close properly, allowing blood to flow backward or reflux. Learn more about the Comprehensive Vein Clinic at Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin.

Vascular disease – see peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Vein disease (venous disease) — any disease of the veins, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), venous stasis disease, venous insufficiency, phlebitis and varicose veins. Learn more about the Venous and Vein Disease Program at Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin. 

Ventricular fibrillation — disordered electrical activity that causes the ventricles to contract in a rapid, unsynchronized manner; sudden death follows unless immediate medical help is provided.

Ventricular tachycardia (VT) — a fast heart rate that starts in the ventricles.

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W

Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome — an abnormal pathway between the atria and ventricles that causes electrical signals to arrive at the ventricles too soon and to be transmitted back to the atria; rapid heart rates may develop.

Appointments

For heart & vascular services:

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Locations

Heart & Vascular Center, Froedtert Hospital 9200 W. Wisconsin Ave.
Milwaukee, WI 53226

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