Our heart and vascular team offers all types of treatments — interventional procedures, minimally invasive surgery and heart surgery — to treat a wide range of heart and vascular conditions. Our physicians are highly skilled and experienced in performing state-of-the-art procedures for all types of heart and vascular problems, including complex cases. Many procedures can be performed using minimally invasive surgery, without opening the chest to reach the heart.

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Aneurysm repair surgery, open surgical aneurysm repair — uses a traditional surgical approach to put a graft in place that connects one end of the aorta at the site of the aneurysm to the other end of the aorta. Learn more about open surgical aneurysm repair.

Angioplasty — see balloon angioplasty

Angioplasty with stent placement, coronary artery stent placement — during an angioplasty, a flexible, wire mesh tube (stent) is placed in an artery after it is opened to keep the artery open. Learn more about angioplasty and other treatments offered through the Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Program.

Annuloplasty — a surgical technique used to support a valve in heart valve repair. Learn more about treatments for heart valve disorders offered through the Heart Valve Disease Program.

Antiarrhythmic drug — a drug used to restore normal heart rhythm and conduction

Anticoagulant — a drug that helps prevent the clotting (coagulation) of blood

Aorta-innominate artery bypass — This surgical reconstruction is performed for occlusive disease of the aortic arch vessels to improve blood flow to the head and right arm when angioplasty and stenting are not options.

Aortic stent — a stent graft placed inside the aorta to bypass an aneurysm

Aortic surgery — thoracic and abdominal surgery on the aorta. Learn more about the aortic surgery options we offer.

Aortic valve repair or replacement (minimally invasive) — a procedure to repair or replace the aortic valve; most people with isolated aortic valve problems requiring repair or replacement are able to take advantage of the less invasive approach. Learn more about the aortic valve surgery options we offer.

Aquapheresis™ — a filtration system that removes fluid in patients for whom diuretics have stopped working. Learn more about Aquapheresis™ and other treatments for advanced heart failure and cardiac transplantation patients.

ASD closure — a surgical technique to close an atrial septal defect (ASD), a congenital defect that leaves a hole in the heart. Learn more about minimally invasive treatments for ASD closure.

Atherectomy — a procedure for opening up an artery by removing the plaque produced by the buildup of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the inner lining of the artery. Learn more about atherectomy and other treatments offered through the Coronary Artery Disease Program (CAD).





Balloon angioplasty, balloon catheterization, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) — a procedure for opening blocked coronary arteries with a balloon-tipped catheter that is inflated to compress plaque in the artery, allowing increased blood flow. Learn more about balloon angioplasty and other treatments offered through the Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Program.

Beating heart surgery, off-pump heart surgery — a method of performing heart surgery (coronary artery bypass graft, or CABG) without stopping the heart or using a heart-lung machine. Learn more about our cardiac surgery options.

Beta-blocker — a type of drug used to relieve stress on the heart; they slow the heart beat, lessen the force with which the heart muscle contracts, and reduce blood vessel contraction in the heart, brain and throughout the body

Bi-ventricular devices —a special pacemaker or defibrillator that stimulates both the right and left ventricles to help synchronize heart contractions so that it can pump more effectively. Learn more about bi-ventricular devices.




Cardiac rehabilitation — a comprehensive program of exercise, risk factor modification and heart health education for patients recovering from heart surgery or other cardiac procedure to help them return to normal activities and stay healthy. Learn more about our cardiac rehabilitation program.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), bi-ventricular pacing — the use of a specialized pacemaker or defibrillator to re-coordinate the action of the right and left ventricles in patients with heart failure and arrhythmia. Learn more about CRT.

Cardiac stent — a device used in the coronary artery to keep the vessel open. Learn more about stenting and other treatments offered through the Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Program.

Cardiac surgery — surgical treatment of diseases affecting the heart and great vessels. Learn more about the cardiac surgery options we offer.

Cardioversion — a brief procedure that delivers an electrical shock to the heart to quickly convert an abnormal heart rhythm back to normal. Learn how it is used to treat atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter.

Carotid artery stent — a minimally invasive procedure that involves placing a stent in a blocked carotid artery to push plaque out of the way and restore blood flow. Provides an alternative to patients considered high-risk for carotid artery surgery. Learn more about our endovascular options.

Carotid endarterectomy — a surgical procedure used to correct stenosis in the carotid artery by removing material (such as atherosclerotic plaque) from within the carotid artery. Learn more about transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR), a minimally invasive option for patients with carotid arterial disease who are at high risk for a traditional carotid endarterectomy.

Catheter ablation, atrial fibrillation catheter ablation, radiofrequency ablation — a procedure to destroy small, carefully selected parts of the heart that are causing an abnormally fast heartbeat (tachycardia). Learn more about the treatments for atrial fibrillation we offer.

Catheter-based thrombolysis — see thrombolysis

Catheterization, catheter-based therapies — the process of inserting a catheter into a vein or artery and guiding it to lesions within target vessels for purposes of examination or treatment. Learn more about catheterization and other treatments offered through the Coronary Artery Disease Program (CAD).

Coronary bypass surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) — surgery that uses blood vessels to go around or “bypass” clogged coronary (heart) arteries so blood can flow through the new vessels to the heart muscle the way it should. Learn more about your CABG options.

Cryo-balloon angioplasty, cryoplasty — a type of therapy for peripheral artery disease (PAD) used to open clogged or narrowed arteries in the legs; the technique is similar to angioplasty used in heart vessels, except stents are placed in a blocked artery to push plaque out of the way and restore blood flow. May be combined with stenting and endarterectomy. Learn more about care options offered through the Peripheral Artery Disease Program.

CryoMaze minimally invasive surgery — a highly successful technique that offers freedom from irregular heartbeat symptoms in 85-90 percent of patients. CryoMaze is a less invasive alternative to traditional maze surgery, long considered the “gold-standard” in arrhythmia treatment. Learn more about CryoMaze and maze.

Cutting balloon angioplasty — a procedure that combines balloon angioplasty with microsurgery; this procedure is helpful for treating veins that resist traditional angioplasty. Learn more about angioplasty and other treatments offered through the Coronary Artery Disease Program (CAD).



Defibrillator — an electronic device used to establish a normal heartbeat

Door-to-balloon time — a time measurement in emergency cardiac care, specifically in the treatment of a heart attack; the interval starts with the patient's arrival in the emergency department, and ends when a catheterization procedure takes place; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend a door-to-balloon interval of no more than 90 minutes. Learn more about emergency heart care.



Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) — ECMO uses an external pump to circulate blood, providing prolonged cardiac and respiratory support for patients whose heart and/or lungs cannot provide enough oxygen to meet the body’s needs.

Emergency care — Froedtert Hospital is eastern Wisconsin’s only adult Level 1 Trauma Center and is a certified Primary Stroke Center. Expert treatment for heart attack, stroke and other heart and vascular emergencies is available through our 24-hour cardiac catheterization lab, interventional radiology suites and other resources. Learn more about emergency heart care.

Endarterectomy — the surgical removal of plaque from the inner wall of a diseased artery by surgery. See carotid endarterectomy.

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), endovascular stent grafts, endovascular therapy — a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is guided into the abdominal aorta to treat an aneurysm; offers a less invasive alternative to surgery for some patients with difficult-to-reach aneurysms. Learn more about treatments for aortic conditions offered through the Aortic Disease Program.

Endovascular vein harvesting — a minimally invasive technique for obtaining a leg vein to be used as a cardiac bypass graft. Learn more about the cardiac surgery options we offer.

Endovenous laser ablation — a technique for treating varicose veins that uses laser energy inside a faulty vein to seal it closed, allowing the blood to be diverted to other normal veins. Learn more about treatments offered through the FORME Aesthetic and Vein Center.



Heart transplant — replacement of a diseased or damaged heart with a healthy heart from a donor. Learn more about the Comprehensive Heart Failure and Transplant Program.




Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) — a device implanted in the chest to monitor for and correct episodes of an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) by pacing or shocking the heart. Learn more about implantable devices and the Arrhythmia Program.

Interventional cardiology — the field of cardiology in which catheter-based (non-invasive) procedures are performed for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Learn more about interventional cardiology and the Coronary Artery Disease Program (CAD).

Interventional radiology, vascular and interventional radiology a subspecialty of radiology which involves using imaging to perform minimally invasive procedures to diagnose and treat disease, often offering an alternative to surgery. Learn more about vascular and interventional radiology.




Laser lead extraction — a procedure for safely removing damaged, infected or otherwise problematic pacemaker or defibrillator leads. Learn more about this and other treatments offered through the Arrhythmia Program.




Maze procedure — a procedure performed to treat atrial fibrillation, the most common type of arrhythmia; see CryoMaze

Medical management — the use of medications to treat heart and vascular disease

Microphlebectomy, ambulatory phlebectomy — a technique to remove varicose veins by making tiny incisions in the skin through which the varicose veins are removed. Stitches are usually not required. Learn more about treatments offered through the FORME Aesthetic and Vein Center.

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) — a type of bypass surgery that may be used when only one or two artery bypasses are needed; the procedure uses a 2- to 3-inch incision in the chest, without splitting the breast bone. Learn more about the cardiac surgery options we offer.

Minimally invasive heart surgery — a variety of heart procedures performed through 3-4 small incisions on the left or right side of the chest; does not require cutting through the breast bone. Learn more about minimally invasive heart surgery.

Mitral valve annuloplasty — surgery to repair the annulus, the fibrous tissue at the base of the mitral valve. Learn more about valve surgery.

Mitral valve repair or replacement (minimally invasive) – The mitral valve can often be repaired or replaced in a minimally invasive procedure, through a small incision in the chest. Learn more about the mitral valve surgery options we offer.




Off-pump bypass surgery — surgery done without stopping the heart and without a heart-lung machine; during the surgery, the heart continues to pump blood to the body. Learn more about cardiac surgery.

Open heart surgery — surgery that involves opening the chest to reach the heart while a heart-lung machine performs for the heart and lungs during the operation. Learn more about the cardiac surgery options we offer.




Pacemaker — a device that sends small electrical impulses to the heart muscle to maintain the heart rate or to stimulate the lower chambers of the heart (ventricles); often used to correct arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats). Learn more about pacemakers.

Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), catheter-based therapies — any number of treatments accomplished by inserting a catheter into a vein or artery and guiding it through the heart chambers and surrounding vessels; includes procedures such as balloon angioplasty and atherectomy. Learn more about PCI and other treatments offered through the Coronary Artery Disease Program (CAD).

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) — see balloon angioplasty

PFO closure — a surgical technique to close a patent foramen ovale (PFO), a congenital defect that leaves a hole in the heart.

Preventive cardiology — any number of treatments aimed at decreasing risk factors of heart and vascular disease, including the control of lipids, fats and fatty substances in the blood. Learn more about the Preventive Cardiology and Lipid Therapy program.

Pulmonary rehabilitation — a comprehensive approach to treating respiratory problems which incorporates therapy, education and exercise. Learn more about pulmonary rehabilitation.




Radiofrequency ablation — see catheter ablation

Rehabilitation — see cardiac rehabilitation and pulmonary rehabilitation

Renal artery angioplasty — a non-surgical procedure to relieve a blockage in the renal artery, the main blood vessel to the kidney; a catheter is inserted through a blockage in an artery, and a balloon on the catheter is inflated to open up the blockage and allow more blood to flow




Sclerotherapy — a procedure to treat spider and varicose veins that involves injecting a solution into the veins, causing them to contract and collapse. Blood in these veins is directed back into deeper, normal veins. Learn more about treatments offered through the FORME Aesthetic and Vein Center.

Stent — a tiny wire mesh tube used to prop open an artery




Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) — a minimally invasive catheter technique in which a stent graft is guided into the thoracic aorta via a blood vessel in the leg and placed within an aneurysm. Learn more about TEVAR and the Aortic Disease Program.

Thoracic outlet syndrome surgery — surgery to relieve the compression of the nerves, blood vessels and muscles in the thoracic outlet, the area between the collarbone (clavicle) and the first rib. Learn more about thoracic outlet syndrome.

Thrombolysis — a catheter-based treatment that removes abnormal blood clots that restrict blood flow; thrombolytic therapy dissolves blood clots using medication given directly into the clot through a catheter, while mechanical thrombolysis breaks up a blood clot using various mechanical devices

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) — an innovative, minimally invasive heart valve replacement procedure for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, an option for patients who are not ideal candidates for open heart surgery. Learn more about TAVR.

Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) — a procedure designed to relieve angina when other treatments (angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery) are not options; using a special laser, small channels are created in the heart muscle in the areas responsible for the angina




Valve-sparing aortic root surgery
— a procedure in which an aneurysm occurring at the aortic root is surgically repaired but the patient’s native aortic valve is preserved. If the aortic valve is diseased or cannot be used during surgery, a donor tissue valve can be used. Learn more about the aortic surgery options we offer.

Valve surgery — traditional or minimally invasive surgery to repair or replace a diseased heart valve. See valve sparing aortic root surgery, minimally invasive aortic valve repair or replacement, minimally invasive mitral valve repair or replacement and valvuloplasty. Learn more about valve surgery.

Valvuloplasty — a procedure to widen a narrowed heart valve; catheter is advanced through a blood vessel, through the aorta and into the heart; the catheter is placed in the valve, and a large balloon at the tip of the catheter is inflated until the flaps of the valve open. Learn more about the valve treatment options we offer.

Vascular and interventional radiology — the diagnosis and treatment of blocked blood vessels using minimally invasive procedures (without surgery) and imaging guidance. Learn more about vascular and interventional radiology.

Vascular surgery — bypass surgery, endarterectomy or other procedures related to the blood vessels of the body. Learn more about vascular surgery and other treatments.

Ventricular assist devices (VAD), mechanical circulatory support — surgically implanted mechanical pumps that help the heart pump blood; can be used as a bridge to heart transplant or a permanent therapy. Learn more about VADs.

Ventricular remodeling — open-heart surgery that involves removing areas of dead heart tissue and reshaping the heart to help it work better with the aim of preventing the progression of heart failure. Learn more about the Comprehensive Heart Failure and Transplant Program.




Wound care —
treating acute and chronic hard-to-heal wounds. Learn more about the Wound Care Clinic.




Our Cardiovascular Program continues to receive recognition as one of the top programs nationally. We are honored to provide high-quality, effective care for even the most high-risk patients.

  • In its 2024 Specialty Excellence Awards, Healthgrades recognized Froedtert Hospital as one of America’s 50 Best Hospitals for Cardiac Surgery, one of America’s 100 Best Hospitals for Cardiac Care and one of America’s 100 Best Hospitals for Coronary Intervention, as well as other specialty achievements in various areas.

    Froedtert Hospital was named one of the nation’s 50 Top Cardiovascular Hospitals™ by Fortune and PINC AI™. Froedtert Hospital demonstrated significantly higher survival rates associated with cardiac care, with fewer readmissions and complications. To select top performers, an objective, independent, quantitative research analysis was performed using publicly available data measuring cardiac care in the U.S. Those in the top 50 operated at a lower cost and had better outcomes, had significantly higher inpatient survival rates, fewer patients with complications, lower readmission rates and spent up to $5,076 less in total costs per patient case. If all hospitals operated at the level of the top 50, there would be 7,600 fewer deaths due to heart disease, 6,700 fewer patients with complications and more than $1 billion saved each year, according to the analysis.

    The Society for Vascular Surgery's Vascular Quality Initiative (SVS VQI) has awarded Froedtert Hospital three out of three stars for its active participation in the Registry Participation Program. The mission of the SVS VQI is to improve patient safety and the quality of vascular care delivery by providing web-based collection, aggregation and analysis of clinical data submitted in registry format for all patients undergoing specific vascular treatments. The VQI operates 14 vascular registries.

    The American Heart Association recognized Froedtert Hospital with its Get With the Guidelines® Heart Failure Gold Plus Award. In addition, the hospital was recognized on the AHA’s Target: Heart Failure(SM) Honor Roll and received the AHA’s Target: Type 2 Diabetes Honor Roll™ award. 

    The American Heart Association also recognized Froedtert Hospital with its Get With the Guidelines® — Coronary Artery Disease Mission: Lifeline STEMI Receiving Silver Plus and Mission: Lifeline NSTEMI Silver awards. These awards demonstrate our commitment to improving care by adhering to the latest treatment guidelines and streamlining processes to ensure timely and proper care for heart attacks.

    The American Heart Association recognized Froedtert Hospital with its Get With the Guidelines® AFib Gold Award.

    ​The Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit (CVICU) and Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at Froedtert Hospital have each received a silver-level Beacon Award for Excellence from the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. This award recognizes unit caregivers who successfully improve patient outcomes and align practices with AACN’s six Healthy Work Environment Standards. Receiving this national three-year award with gold, silver and bronze designations, marks a significant milestone on the path to exceptional patient care and achieving a healthy work environment.